BIG 8 AT IT'S BEST NEWS

WE ARE HERE FOR YOU

               

THE PEOPLE'S AND THE

YOUTHS POPE PASS AWAY ON

ON APRIL.3.2005  ( APRIL.2.2005 US TIME ZONE ) HE WILL BE MISS BY ALL OF

US - DAVID A GARCIA BIG 8 AT ITS BEST NEWS - WE ARE HERE FOR YOU

YES THE KID'S AND BABE'S POPE TOO - DAVID. LET GET'S  TO THE SAD STORY

NOW

 

TO SEE SOME PHOTO'S OF THE POPE AND OTHER'S PLEASE GO TO THIS LINK

RIGHT HERE     http://www.big8atitsbestnews.com/popephotoswebpage.htm

 

HE WILL BE MISS BY ALL OF US    

 

 

FOR MORN INFO AND UPDATE’S ABOUT THE POPE AND PAST POPE’S PLEASE

GO TO THES LINKS. WEB SITE’S  LINK’S HERE

Official site for the Vatican, hub of the Catholic Church.   http://www.vatican.va/

Overview of the method and tradition of selecting a new Pope. From TIME Magazine.  http://www.time.com/time/daily/special/papacy/how.html

Lists and profiles the 264 Popes. From the Catholic Community Forum.

 http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/pope0000.htm

Includes a photo gallery, a section on possible successors, and related links and information, from CNN.

 http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1999/pope/

Fox news pope  link   http://www.foxnews.com/

ABC news pope link http://www.abcnews.go.com/Health/Pope/

NBC news pope link    http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3305285/

CBS news pope link   http://www.cbsnews.com/sections/popejohnpaul/main500402.shtml

Yahoo! Pope news link  http://story.news.yahoo.com/fc?cid=34&tmpl=fc&in=World&cat=Pope_John_Paul_II

Live Video: ABC News Coverage
Browse Videos: The Pope's Life
Was He a 'Great' Pope?

 

 

Mourning cloaks the world after pope's death

China makes cursory mention of pontiff's passing

Saturday, April 2, 2005 Posted: 8:56 PM EST (0156 GMT)

 From the Caribbean to Cairo, Egypt, people mourned the Saturday death

of Pope John Paul II. Below is a sampling of memorials and Masses across the globe.

Poland

The people in Pope John Paul II's hometown fell to their knees and wept Saturday as news of his death

reached them at the end of a special Mass in the church where he worshipped as a boy.

"His life has come to an end. Our great countryman has died," parish priest the Rev. Jakub Gil told worshippers.

In Warsaw, church bells rang and traffic halted. At Pilsudski Square, the former Victory Square where he conducted

a mass in 1979 in then-communist Poland, people laid flowers in the form of a cross. Others walked to church holding candles.

The pope was deeply loved in mainly Roman Catholic Poland, where his 26-year pontificate served as a source

of national pride. Gratitude remains strong for his role in helping topple communism and free Poland from Soviet domination.

Jerusalem

In the Holy Land where Jesus walked, Jews, Muslims and Christians paid homage Saturday to Pope John Paul II's

tireless efforts to embrace people of different faiths.

Though his record was not without controversy, the pope used his frequent homilies and travels to pursue religious

 reconciliation. His visits to a synagogue in Rome, Italy, and a mosque in Damascus, Syria, were the first by a pontiff to

 Jewish and Muslim houses of worship.

Israeli Vice Premier Shimon Peres said the pope "embodied the best that is within all mankind as well as the

commonness of humanity. ... His actions and statements transformed relations between the Catholic and Jewish faiths,

and made a fundamental impact on the struggle against anti-Semitism. We will miss him."

About 150 worshippers, most of them Palestinians, joined by a few pilgrims, gathered at the Church of the Nativity in

Jesus' birthplace, the West Bank town of Bethlehem, to celebrate a special Mass shortly before the pope died.

Egypt

The Arab League expressed sorrow Saturday for the pope's death, calling him a man of peace who encouraged

dialogue between nations and religions.

"This is a sad day, we are very sad to lose him," said Hesham Youssef, a spokesman for the secretary general of the

 league, a group widely seen as a mouthpiece for the Arab world. "We will never forget his noble stance in support of the

oppressed people, including the Palestinians," Youssef said.

Sulaiman Awad, a spokesman for Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak said "Egypt received the news (of the pontiff's death)

 with deep sadness." He said Egypt would send a high-level delegation to the pontiff's funeral.

The Polish-born pontiff, who became history's most-traveled pope, visited several Arab countries including Egypt,

Lebanon and Syria during his 25 year- reign, in addition to being the first pope to visit a mosque.

Cuba

Fidel Castro's communist government fondly recalled Pope John Paul II's visit to the island seven years ago as it

sent condolences Saturday to Roman Catholics after learning of the pontiff's death.

Foreign Minister Felipe Perez Roque said the nation's leadership and people had received the news of John Paul's

 passing "with profound sorrow." Perez Roque said the Cuban government would send a high-level delegation to

 the pope's funeral.

"We always saw, and continue to see, Juan Pablo II as a friend," Perez Roque said. He said Cuban officials would always

remember the pope's January 1998 visit to Cuba when he criticized four decades of U.S. trade sanctions against the island.

On Friday night, Cardinal Jaime Ortega -- Cuba's top Roman Catholic churchman -- made a highly unusual appearance on

state television to tell his fellow Cubans that John Paul was nearing death. Ortega was mentioned in the past as a long shot

candidate to succeed John Paul.

China

After days of ignoring the pope's mounting medical troubles, China's government media announced the pontiff's death in a

cursory bulletin by the official news agency.

"In the last days of the pope's life, the Catholic Patriotic Association of China and the Chinese Bishops College extended good

 wishes for his health," Xinhua news agency reported.

The pope's medical condition was front page news across much of Asia this week, but Chinese media had ignored the

developments.

Instead, news of a rare sturgeon being moved to the capital's aquarium was splashed across the front of the popular Beijing

Youth Daily. The lead article in the People's Daily newspaper was a report of a phone conversation between President Hu

Jintao and his French counterpart, Jacques Chirac.

Neither paper reported that the pope was near death nor that he was the subject of a global vigil.

China broke ties with the Vatican in 1951 and demands that Catholics worship only in churches approved by the state-controlled

 church group that does not recognize the pope's authority. State churches do acknowledge the pope as a spiritual leader.

Mexico

In Mexico City, church bells tolled across the capital and mourners draped a black bunting above the entrance of the Basilica

 of Guadalupe, where the pope canonized the first American Indian saint three years ago.

Crying, clapping and clutching rosaries, about 200 people gathered at the base of a large bronze statue of the pope next to the

basilica and began to chant, "John Paul II, the whole world loves you!"

Patricia Lopez, 41, who led the group in a sad recitation of the Lord's Prayer, sobbed uncontrollably as worshippers next to her

thrust their arms skyward and rocked to and fro in grief.

"I lost both of my parents and this is a similar pain," said Lopez, who had been praying at the basilica since from the early-morning

hours with her 12-year-old daughter, Angela.

Nearly 90 percent of Mexico's 100 million people are at least nominally Catholic, and about 20 million people were believed to have

 turned out to see the pope during his initial Latin American trip in 1979. He returned four times, delighting the crowds who clogged the

streets and packed sports stadiums when he donned a sombrero, and accompanied mariachis on guitar.

Spain

Spain's Socialist government, which had challenged the pope by endorsing gay marriage and streamlining procedures for abortion

and divorce, praised him as an inspiration to both Christians and non-Christians as it joined the world in mourning his death.

Thousands of people on Saturday still filled Plaza de Colon, where the pope said Mass before a million worshippers gathered in

the shape of a cross in May 2003, when the pontiff paid the last of his five visits to predominantly Roman Catholic Spain.

"He was a man who knew how to live and knew how to die," an unidentified man told Spanish TV.

Prime Minister Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero, whose government summoned the Vatican ambassador earlier this year to

 protest criticism from the pope over Spain's increasingly secular society, sent a telegram to Rome expressing its condolence's

over his death.

France

The bells of Notre Dame Cathedral rang out individually 84 times in homage to the late Pope John Paul II -- once for each year of his life.

The cathedral in the heart of Paris stayed open through the night for prayers. More than 3,000 worshippers crammed inside, with

1,000 others gathered outside as the towering cathedral's bells sounded over the French capital.

A giant portrait of John Paul, showing him holding a staff, was hung from the middle of Notre Dame. Mass was said, and worshippers

knelt in prayer.

French President Jacques Chirac, in a statement after the pope's death, said the pontiff "touched spirits and hearts" with his courage

and determination. "An enlightened and inspired priest, he devoted himself to responding to the search for sense and the thirst for justice

that is expressed today on all continents," Chirac said.

World mourns Pope John Paul II

 

 

POPE: 'A hero for the ages'

Saturday, April 2, 2005 Posted: 5:57 PM EST (2257 GMT)

WASHINGTON (CNN) -- President Bush, with his wife, Laura, at his side, spoke briefly at the White House

after he learned of the pope's death.

Bush met three times with the pope during his life. In June 2004, Bush presented the pontiff with the Presidential Medal of Freedom,

the highest U.S. honor given to civilians, while visiting the Vatican.

The following is the text of the president's statement Saturday afternoon:

"The Catholic Church has lost its shepherd. The world has lost a champion of human freedom, and a good and faithful servant of God

 has been called home.

"Pope John Paul II left the throne of St. Peter in the same way he ascended to it -- as a witness to the dignity of human life. In his native

 Poland, that witness launched a democratic revolution that swept Eastern Europe and changed the course of history.

"Throughout the West, John Paul's witness reminds us of our obligation to build a culture of life, in which the strong protect the weak.

"And during the Pope's final years, his witness was made even more powerful by his daily courage in the face of illness and great suffering.

"All popes belong to the world, but Americans had special reason to love the man from Krakow. In his visits to our country, the pope

spoke of our providential Constitution, the self-evident truths about human dignity in our Declaration (of Independence), and the blessings

of liberty that follow from them.

"It is these truths, he said, which have led people all over the world to look to America with hope and respect. Pope John Paul II was

himself an inspiration to millions of Americans and to so many more throughout the world.

"We will always remember the humble, wise and fearless priest who became one of history's great moral leaders. We are grateful to

God for sending such a man, a son of Poland who became the bishop of Rome and a hero for the ages."

French President Jacques Chirac praised Pope John Paul II's "unshakable faith, exemplary authority and admirable ardor" and

said he "touched spirits and hearts" with his courage and determination.

"An enlightened and inspired priest, he devoted himself to responding to the search for sense and the thirst for justice that is

expressed today on all continents," Chirac said in a statement.

History "will retain the imprint and the memory of this exceptional sovereign pontiff, whose charisma, conviction and compassion

 carried the evangelical message with unprecedented resonance on the international stage," Chirac added.

British Prime Minister Tony Blair said: "Throughout a hard and often difficult life, he stood for social justice and on the side of the

oppressed, whether as a young man facing the Nazi occupation in Poland or later in challenging the communist regime. He never

 wavered, never flinched, in the struggle for what he thought was good and right."

German chancellor Gerhard Schroeder said: "Pope John Paul II wrote history. Through his work, and through his impressive personality

 he changed our world." He praised the pope's work for "peace, human rights, solidarity and social justice."

Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi said: "We are all grateful for the tireless work and suffering that he bore incessantly

against every form of totalitarianism, violence, oppression and moral degradation in the name of the values of the Catholic Church

 that are also the supreme values of human dignity and solidarity."

U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan said the pope was a man of peace and had been a great supporter of the United Nations.

"He ... (was) extremely concerned about the world we lived in, and like me, he also felt that in war, all are losers." said Annan.

Philippine President Gloria Arroyo led the nation in expressing a "deep sense of grief" over the death the pope. "Our people

 receive the news of his death with a deep sense of grief and loss. He was a holy champion of the Filipino family and of profound

Christian values that make everyone of us contemplate everyday, what is just, moral and sacred in life," Arroyo said.

Lech Walesa, who led Poland's Solidarity movement which won power after a decade of struggle and hastened the collapse

of the whole Soviet bloc, said Polish-born John Paul inspired the drive to end communism in Eastern Europe. "(Without him) there

would be no end of communism or at least much later and the end would have been bloody," Walesa said.

Israel's foreign minister, Silvan Shalom said in a statement: "He promoted inter-faith understanding and dialogue, with a willingness

 to address the past, and a profound determination to build a future of understanding and brotherhood between all faiths,". He called

John Paul's passing "a great loss...for humanity as a whole."

Palestinian leader Mahmoud Abbas said: "We will miss him as a distinguished religious figure, who devoted his life to defending the

values of peace, freedom and equality. He defended the rights of Palestinians, their freedom and independence."

Britain's Queen Elizabeth II spoke of her deep sorrow. "The Queen also remembers well the work of Pope John Paul II for

Christian unity, including closer ties between the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches," said a statement released by Buckingham Palace.

Former British prime minister Margaret Thatcher praised the pontiff's role in toppling communism. "Millions owe him their

 freedom and self respect. The whole world is inspired by his example," she said. "His life was a long struggle against the

lies employed to excuse evil. By combating the falsehoods of communism and proclaiming the true dignity of the individual,

his was the moral force behind victory in the Cold War."

Ireland's President Mary McAleese said John Paul II had been a pillar of the modern world, serving the Catholic Church and

the cause of all humanity.

Fidel Castro's communist government fondly recalled Pope John Paul II's visit to Cuba seven years ago. During a hastily called

news conference, Foreign Minister Felipe Perez Roque said the nation's leadership and people had received the news of John Paul's

 passing "with profound sorrow," The Associated Press reported.

Australia's Prime Minister John Howard said Pope John Paul II had been "a pillar of strength as well as a provider of great

 compassion and in every proper sense of the term, an apostle of peace." Howard lauded the pope as a friend to all Christian

denominations. "He advanced the ecumenical movement, he reached out to Jewish people, to those of the Islamic faith, and was

also an inspiration to people of no faith at all."

Mourning cloaks the world after pope's death

China makes cursory mention of pontiff's passing

 (AP) -- From the Caribbean to Cairo, Egypt, people mourned the Saturday death of Pope John Paul II.

 Below is a sampling of memorials and Masses across the globe.

Poland

The people in Pope John Paul II's hometown fell to their knees and wept Saturday as news of his death reached them at the

 end of a special Mass in the church where he worshipped as a boy.

"His life has come to an end. Our great countryman has died," parish priest the Rev. Jakub Gil told worshippers.

In Warsaw, church bells rang and traffic halted. At Pilsudski Square, the former Victory Square where he conducted a mass in

 1979 in then-communist Poland, people laid flowers in the form of a cross. Others walked to church holding candles.

The pope was deeply loved in mainly Roman Catholic Poland, where his 26-year pontificate served as a source of national pride.

Gratitude remains strong for his role in helping topple communism and free Poland from Soviet domination.

Jerusalem

In the Holy Land where Jesus walked, Jews, Muslims and Christians paid homage Saturday to Pope John Paul II's tireless

efforts to embrace people of different faiths.

Though his record was not without controversy, the pope used his frequent homilies and travels to pursue religious reconciliation.

His visits to a synagogue in Rome, Italy, and a mosque in Damascus, Syria, were the first by a pontiff to Jewish and Muslim houses

of worship.

Israeli Vice Premier Shimon Peres said the pope "embodied the best that is within all mankind as well as the commonness

 of humanity. ... His actions and statements transformed relations between the Catholic and Jewish faiths, and made a

fundamental impact on the struggle against anti-Semitism. We will miss him."

About 150 worshippers, most of them Palestinians, joined by a few pilgrims, gathered at the Church of the Nativity in Jesus'

birthplace, the West Bank town of Bethlehem, to celebrate a special Mass shortly before the pope died.

Egypt

The Arab League expressed sorrow Saturday for the pope's death, calling him a man of peace who encouraged dialogue

between nations and religions.

"This is a sad day, we are very sad to lose him," said Hesham Youssef, a spokesman for the secretary general of the league,

a group widely seen as a mouthpiece for the Arab world. "We will never forget his noble stance in support of the oppressed people,

 including the Palestinians," Youssef said.

Sulaiman Awad, a spokesman for Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak said "Egypt received the news (of the pontiff's death) with

 deep sadness." He said Egypt would send a high-level delegation to the pontiff's funeral.

The Polish-born pontiff, who became history's most-traveled pope, visited several Arab countries including Egypt, Lebanon

and Syria during his 25 year- reign, in addition to being the first pope to visit a mosque.

Cuba

Fidel Castro's communist government fondly recalled Pope John Paul II's visit to the island seven years ago as it sent condolences

 Saturday to Roman Catholics after learning of the pontiff's death.

Foreign Minister Felipe Perez Roque said the nation's leadership and people had received the news of John Paul's passing "with

 profound sorrow." Perez Roque said the Cuban government would send a high-level delegation to the pope's funeral.

"We always saw, and continue to see, Juan Pablo II as a friend," Perez Roque said. He said Cuban officials would always

remember the pope's January 1998 visit to Cuba when he criticized four decades of U.S. trade sanctions against the island.

On Friday night, Cardinal Jaime Ortega -- Cuba's top Roman Catholic churchman -- made a highly unusual appearance on

state television to tell his fellow Cubans that John Paul was nearing death. Ortega was mentioned in the past as a long

 shot candidate to succeed John Paul.

China

After days of ignoring the pope's mounting medical troubles, China's government media announced the pontiff's death in a

cursory bulletin by the official news agency.

"In the last days of the pope's life, the Catholic Patriotic Association of China and the Chinese Bishops College extended good

 wishes for his health," Xinhua news agency reported.

The pope's medical condition was front page news across much of Asia this week, but Chinese media had ignored the developments.

Instead, news of a rare sturgeon being moved to the capital's aquarium was splashed across the front of the popular Beijing Youth

Daily. The lead article in the People's Daily newspaper was a report of a phone conversation between President Hu Jintao and his

 French counterpart, Jacques Chirac.

Neither paper reported that the pope was near death nor that he was the subject of a global vigil.

China broke ties with the Vatican in 1951 and demands that Catholics worship only in churches approved by the state-

controlled church group that does not recognize the pope's authority. State churches do acknowledge the pope as a spiritual leader.

Mexico

In Mexico City, church bells tolled across the capital and mourners draped a black bunting above the entrance of the Basilica

 of Guadalupe, where the pope canonized the first American Indian saint three years ago.

Crying, clapping and clutching rosaries, about 200 people gathered at the base of a large bronze statue of the pope next to the

basilica and began to chant, "John Paul II, the whole world loves you!"

Patricia Lopez, 41, who led the group in a sad recitation of the Lord's Prayer, sobbed uncontrollably as worshippers next to her

thrust their arms skyward and rocked to and fro in grief.

"I lost both of my parents and this is a similar pain," said Lopez, who had been praying at the basilica since from the early-morning

hours with her 12-year-old daughter, Angela.

Nearly 90 percent of Mexico's 100 million people are at least nominally Catholic, and about 20 million people were believed to

have turned out to see the pope during his initial Latin American trip in 1979. He returned four times, delighting the crowds who

 clogged the streets and packed sports stadiums when he donned a sombrero, and accompanied mariachis on guitar.

Spain

Spain's Socialist government, which had challenged the pope by endorsing gay marriage and streamlining procedures

for abortion and divorce, praised him as an inspiration to both Christians and non-Christians as it joined the world in mourning his death.

Thousands of people on Saturday still filled Plaza de Colon, where the pope said Mass before a million worshippers gathered

 in the shape of a cross in May 2003, when the pontiff paid the last of his five visits to predominantly Roman Catholic Spain.

"He was a man who knew how to live and knew how to die," an unidentified man told Spanish TV.

Prime Minister Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero, whose government summoned the Vatican ambassador earlier this year to protest

criticism from the pope over Spain's increasingly secular society, sent a telegram to Rome expressing its condolence's over his death.

France

The bells of Notre Dame Cathedral rang out individually 84 times in homage to the late Pope John Paul II -- once for each year of his life.

The cathedral in the heart of Paris stayed open through the night for prayers. More than 3,000 worshippers crammed inside, with

1,000 others gathered outside as the towering cathedral's bells sounded over the French capital.

A giant portrait of John Paul, showing him holding a staff, was hung from the middle of Notre Dame. Mass was said, and worshippers

knelt in prayer.

French President Jacques Chirac, in a statement after the pope's death, said the pontiff "touched spirits and hearts" with his courage

 and determination. "An enlightened and inspired priest, he devoted himself to responding to the search for sense and the thirst for

 justice that is expressed today on all continents," Chirac said.

 

 

Youth keep watch through the night following Pope's death

Rome, Apr. 02 (CWNews.com) - As Saturday, April 2, became Sunday, many young people continued to

 keep watch through the night in St. Peter's Square, just a few hours after the announcement of the death

 of Pope John Paul II

While the whole world reacts to the death of the Holy Father, the young people of the diocese of Rome, his

own diocese, gathered themselves before the Mass which was to be celebrated in his memory at 10:30 am

on Sunday by the Italian Cardinal Angelo Sodano

 President Bush on John Paul II: "Humble, wise,

 

 fearless priest"

Washington, DC, Apr. 02 (CWNews.com) - US President George W. Bush offered condolences on behalf of the

 American people to the Catholic Church on Saturday after learning of the death of Pope John Paul II

 The president had met the Pope three times, in 2001, 2003, and 2004, twice at the Vatican and once at the

papal summer residence of Castelgandolfo.

The president, with First Lady Laura Bush, standing by his side at the White House, both of them visibly moved,

gave the following statement:

"Laura and I join people across the Earth in mourning the passing of Pope John Paul II. The Catholic Church has

lost its shepherd, the world has lost a champion of human freedom, and a good and faithful servant of God has

 been called home.

"Pope John Paul II left the throne of St. Peter in the same way he ascended to it -- as a witness to the dignity

 of human life. In his native Poland, that witness launched a democratic revolution that swept Eastern Europe

and changed the course of history. Throughout the West, John Paul's witness reminded us of our obligation to

build a culture of life in which the strong protect the weak. And during the Pope's final years, his witness was

 made even more powerful by his daily courage in the face of illness and great suffering.

"All Popes belong to the world, but Americans had special reason to love the man from Krakow. In his visits

to our country, the Pope spoke of our "providential" Constitution, the self-evident truths about human dignity

 in our Declaration, and the "blessings of liberty" that follow from them. It is these truths, he said, that have

led people all over the world to look to America with hope and respect.

"Pope John Paul II was, himself, an inspiration to millions of Americans, and to so many more throughout the

world. We will always remember the humble, wise and fearless priest who became one of history's great moral

leaders. We're grateful to God for sending such a man, a son of Poland, who became the Bishop of Rome, and a hero for the ages."

Pope Dies on Vigil of Divine Mercy Sunday
VATICAN CITY, APRIL 2, 2005 (Zenit.org).- John Paul II's final days coincided with the Church's

preparation to celebrate the feast he described as flowing from Christ's "most profound mercy,"

and which he himself established.

John Paul II designated the second Sunday of Easter to be Divine Mercy Sunday in a surprise announcement

at the canonization of Sister Faustina Kowalska (1905-1938). The Polish nun, beatified in 1993, and canonized

in 2000, on the second Sunday of Easter, began the spiritual movement of Divine Mercy.

The feast, said the Holy Father, "is a perpetual invitation to the Christian world to address, with trust in divine

benevolence, the difficulties and trials that await the human race in the coming years."

The essence of St. Faustina's mission was to proclaim God's mercy toward every human being. Her

spiritual legacy to the Church is devotion to Divine Mercy, inspired by a vision in which Jesus himself

asked that a painting be made of his image with the invocation "Jesus, I trust in you" appearing below.

She commissioned the painting in 1935.

Cardinal Karol Wojtyla, then Archbishop of Krakow, began Sister Faustina's process of beatification.

On
Aug. 17, 2003, John Paul II entrusted the world to Divine Mercy when he dedicated the new shrine of

Lagiewniki, a suburb of Krakow, located next to the convent where St. Faustina Kowalska lived and died

PEOPLE OF ALL FAITHS MOURN PASSING OF POPE JOHN PAUL II  
VATICAN CITY  Thousands of people are now flocking to Vatican City, a day after the passing of Pope John Paul II. He died

 in his private apartment at 2:37 ET yesterday afternoon (9:37 PM at the Vatican). He was 84. The Vatican says the pope's final hours

 were marked by the "uninterrupted prayer of all those who were assisting him" -- as well as by "choral participation" by thousands

of faithful outside his window. The pope developed a high fever just hours before his death. One Italian newspaper reported that

 before he died, the pope, with the help of his private secretary, wrote a note to his aides urging them not to weep for him.

It reportedly said, "I am happy, and you should be as well." The Polish pontiff was the spiritual leader to more than one-billion

Catholics, including more than a quarter-million in the five counties of the Allentown Diocese. He became history's most-traveled

 pope during his 26-year papacy.

FUNERAL PLANS TAKE SHAPE; CARDINALS TO GATHER TO CHOOSE NEW POPE
VATICAN CITY  An official nine-day mourning period, known as the "novemdiales," is now underway. The
Vatican says Pope

John Paul's funeral will likely be held sometime between Wednesday and Friday. A series of memorials and Masses will precede

 it. Most popes in recent centuries have chosen to be buried beneath St. Peter's Basilica, but there is speculation the Polish-born

pope may have chosen to be laid to rest in his native country. The College of Cardinals will meet tomorrow at 10:00 AM local time.

That will be its first gathering prior to a secret election to choose the pope's successor. That'll happen later this month, after the

 official mourning period.

ALLENTOWN DIOCESE TO HOLD SPECIAL MASS TO MARK PASSING OF POPE
ALLENTOWN  The Allentown Diocese has announced that Bishop Edward Cullen will celebrate a special Mass at the

Church of St. Thomas More in Allentown Tuesday at Noon. Bishop Cullen is also recommending that pastors in all 152 parishes

in the five-county (Berks, Carbon, Lehigh, Northampton, & Schuylkill) diocese schedule special Masses "as soon as possible

and pastorally feasible for the repose of the soul of Pope John Paul II." On the day of the pope’s funeral, the Diocese of Allentown

will observe a Day of Mourning. Pastors are encouraged to toll their bells 84 times (in commemoration of the pope’s age) at 3 PM that afternoon.

FOR THE FIRST TIME, WORD OF POPE'S DEATH DELIVERED BY COMPUTER
VATICAN CITY  For the first papal death of the 21st Century, the announcement came by e-mail. Past papal deaths have been

signaled by bells tolling and bronze doors closing. But yesterday, when Pope John Paul died, Vatican officials passed the word to

reporters by e-mail. The message said: "The Holy Father died this evening at 9:37 PM in his private apartment." It added that the

 procedures outlined in the official papal instructions "have been put in motion." Those procedures call for the Vatican chamberlain

to verify the death. It's not clear how that was done. In the past, a pope's forehead was tapped with a silver hammer. The Vatican

then summons the College of Cardinals, and the chamberlain destroys the symbols of the pope's authority: his fisherman's ring

and dies used to make lead seals for apostolic letters.

REACTION TO THE POPE'S PASSING

President Bush:
"The Catholic Church has lost its shepherd, the world has lost a champion of human freedom, and a good and faithful servant

 of God has been called home. Pope John Paul II was, himself, an inspiration to millions of Americans, and to so many more

throughout the world. We will always remember the humble, wise and fearless priest who became one of history's great

 moral leaders. We're grateful to God for sending such a man, a son of Poland, who became the Bishop of Rome, and a hero for the ages."

Cardinal Justin Rigali, Archbishop of
Philadelphia
:
"It was with deep sadness that I received the news of Pope John Paul II's passing. It was also with gratitude to God for the

gift of the Holy Father. He will surely be remembered as the greatest spiritual leader of our time. His entire life was an example

of how to live out our faith, how to give witness to the love of our Lord Jesus Christ. The Holy Father gave himself completely

 in service to Jesus and to the universal Church. In his final years, he suffered from many physical ailments but he never

allowed those pains and problems to weigh down his spirit; his suffering was his final gift. He was an example to us all of the

value of human life at every stage of existence."

Bishop Edward Cullen,
Allentown
Diocese:
"The hand of God was upon John Paul II, who for more than 26 years as pope, spoke and wrote so passionately on the dignity

the human person. His response to having the hand of God upon him was a life built on prayer to the extent that many

considered him almost mystical. I invite all the people within the Diocese of Allentown to thank God for the gift of this wonderful

man of faith and to be one with the world in praying for the repose of his soul."

Gov. Ed Rendell,
Pennsylvania
:
“It is with deep sadness that I learned of the death of Pope John Paul II. As a champion of human rights, his charisma,

strength and determination to bring peace throughout the world has inspired millions. As the most widely traveled

pontiff in the Vatican’s history, Pope John Paul II’s indomitable spirit touched the lives of many people of all faiths

 throughout the world with his tireless efforts of humanity, and he will be deeply missed.”

LOCAL CATHOLICS RECALL ENCOUNTERS WITH POPE OVER THE YEARS
 Some Catholics in the
Lehigh Valley and Berks County had the opportunity to meet the late Pope John Paul II over the

years. Kaz Wulkowicz -- the Polka voice of WEEU-AM in Reading -- and his wife met him in August 2003 after sending the Vatican

 his book about Polish-Americans and an accompanying CD. "The priest said 'this is the man from America who wrote about

Poles in America,'" Kaz told us. "He (the pope) says, 'I have it.' When he said that, I felt like an angel in Heaven, and I figured, gee,

I'm in now!" Julia Calandra-Lineberg -- the vice president of the National Centre for Padre Pio in Barto, Berks County -- also met

 the pope. "When you meet him, you don't know what to say. You're speechless. And then all of a sudden he offers to you, he

extends his hands to you. He extends a warm smile. He engages you personally by looking at you directly and all apprehension

 that you have is gone." Julia and her family will be leaving for Rome Monday. It's a trip they planned long before the pope's death.

 

Pope's relationship with youths unique


Saturday, April 02, 2005

 

TORONTO -- For an entire generation, he was the only pope they ever knew.

Throughout his 26-year papacy, Pope John Paul had a unique yet at times tumultuous relationship

with youth worldwide.

At 58 he became the youngest pope in 132 years, inheriting an acient institution in shambles, some

 observers said at the time. Many priests and nuns had left the Roman Catholic Church, which faced

a widening gulf with its younger followers.

A string of sex abuse scandals throughout the 1980s and 1990s further rattled the Church's relationship

with youth. The Vatican's strong stand against same-sex marriage also pushed away some younger,

more progressive Catholics, who increasingly saw the Church as an aging institution not keeping up with the times.

John Paul embarked upon a series of changes to rekindle ties with young people, while staying true to

 Catholicism's more conservative views.

In 1986, the Pope started World Youth Day, an annual celebration intended to revitalize the Roman Catholic

 Church's bond with believers 16 to 35 years of age from around the globe.

"He knew their aspirations, he knew what they were looking for in their lives," said Father Jarek Pachocki

of Our Lady of Perpetual Help Cathedral in Labrador City, Nfld.

Pachocki led a group of 50 youths to John Paul's seven-day stop in Toronto for World Youth Day festivities

 in July 2002.

It was then the Pope acknowledged the clergy's "sins and failings" in dealing with the sex abuse scandals.

Despite visibly suffering from symptoms of Parkinson's disease, he said he was "young at heart" and that

the enthusiasm exhibited by the young pilgrims re-energized him.

At one point during his visit, he ventured away from his handlers and towards a group of supporters.

He unexpectedly picked up a two-year-old boy in his arms and kissed him on the cheek.

At Sunday mass, he blessed more than 800,000 worshippers as some of them chanted, "JP2, we love you."

Three years later, his visit still resonates among those who were there.

"Definitely, there was a big change in my faith," said Andrea Bulanda, now 19.

"You couldn't help but feel the excitement in the air ... you just feel so much more spiritual. It really

 changes your view on things. Church isn't just a boring place you go where all the old people sit. It's living.

It's breathing."

While some of her Catholic peers felt estranged as the Vatican asserted its rigid stance against same-sex

marriage, premarital sex and contraception, Bulanda said she appreciated John Paul's unwavering position.

"You can't, as leader of a faith, change your opinion just according to what the youths of the world want

 to hear," said the second-year chemical engineering student.

"We need to follow in the rules that God has given us. Pope John Paul just helped to keep us on track."

Perhaps it was due to his own troubled childhood that John Paul, then known as Karol Wojtyla, or Lolek

among his schoolyard buddies, felt a need to connect with young people.

His mother died of heart and kidney problems when he was nine. At 12, his 26-year-old brother died of

scarlet fever. John Paul himself had two brushes with death in his younger years -- once being hit by a

streetcar, another time by a truck.

Yet through a life marked by pain and suffering, John Paul's disarming sense of humour may have been

the lure that reeled in alienated followers back to the Church.

Three weeks after he was shot in the abdomen in May 1981, John Paul traded barbs with medical staff,

telling them: "You thought you had changed me, but I'm still the same old rascal."

After his first papal visit to Canada in 1984, where he sometimes broke away from a cocoon of organizers,

priests and police officers to whisper into the ear of a smiling child, he boarded a flight bound for Rome and

left the country delivering impromptu remarks.

"I truly hope God's providence will give me another occasion to meet with them," he said, referring to a

cancelled meeting with native leaders in Fort Simpson, N.W.T.

"Excuse me -- so I invited myself to the second time in Canada."

In his every appearance, the Pope knew how to work a crowd. He has brought teens to tears and grins

 to kids.

In his book, The Making of the Popes 1978, Andrew Greeley wrote, "His moves, his presence,

 his smile, his friendliness, his gestures ... have pleased everyone ... he is great with crowds --

shaking hands, smiling, talking, kissing babies."

While his charisma and approachability lent to his appeal, he was also known to embrace emerging media.

 During his early years of his papacy, the Vatican began using satellite transmissions and videos to spread

 the word of God. And in 1983 he became the only pope to have a comic book written about him when

Marvel Comics devoted an entire edition to his life -- "From his childhood in Poland to his assassination attempt!"

In the late 1990s, the Church enjoyed a renaissance of sorts among youth with a helping hand from

 the growing popularity of Christian rock. Combining teenage fervour with lyrics proclaiming the love

of God, dozens of bands performed before John Paul's visits throughout North America, most notably

during a two-day tour of St. Louis in January 1999.

As for what to expect in a new pontiff, Bulanda hopes the bridge John Paul built with youth remains.

"A new pope would have to have a good grasp on the tradition, but also be open to new ways of

practising it similarly to John Paul," she said.

Heavy-Hearted Flock to Churches

·  In Southern California, the pope's admirers gather for Mass, prayers and quiet reflection.

 

By Teresa Watanabe, Fred Alvarez and Larry B. Stammer, Times Staff Writers

 

In formal Masses and private reflections, Roman Catholics flocked to Southern California churches Friday to

pray for Pope John Paul II, expressing reverence for his life and concern about his impending death.

Some worshipers revamped vacation plans, traveled miles on public transit or even showed up in church for the first

 time in years to offer prayers, as news spread that the pope was nearing the end of his extraordinary, 26-year pontificate.


At a noontime Mass at the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels in downtown Los Angeles, Cardinal Roger M.

Mahony prepared the packed congregation of more than 3,500 for bad news from the Vatican.

"It is obvious that death is imminent for our Holy Father," said Mahony, dressed in white vestments and a red skullcap.

"So we are here to accompany him with our love and our prayers on this last leg of the journey."

Worshipers across the region lighted candles, said the Rosary and shared stories of lives touched and transformed by

John Paul's leadership.

Donna Wilson, who attended the cathedral Mass, said the pontiff inspired her to become a Catholic because

of the way he brought people together as a symbol of unity and love.

"It's like losing someone in my family," she said, tears welling in her eyes. "He's such a wonderful man, and this

was my way to come show my respect."

Miles away at Mission San Buenaventura in Ventura, Chris Eul said the pope's struggles with illness had taught

her family about perseverance. Her daughter Veronica, 23, survived two open-heart surgeries; like John Paul,

the family drew on its faith to endure the ordeals.

During a noontime Mass at St. Monica Catholic Church in Santa Monica, Msgr. Lloyd Torgerson spoke of John

 Paul's bountiful life. The prelate told the more than 150 people gathered, twice the normal daily attendance,

 that the pope's ministry was aptly captured by the Latin phrase on his bishop's crest before he became pontiff: "Totus

 tuus," or "All yours."

"If there were ever a person who did that, it was John Paul II … his life, his incredible spirit, his undaunted energy,

" Torgerson said. "I presume we'll know him as the Great Evangelizer, as the person who took the great message

 of the good word to every nook and cranny of this Earth."

Cesar Castillo, a parishioner at St. Pius V Church in Buena Park, was influenced by the pope's global evangelism.

He said he was living in Peru when he saw the pontiff on TV and, based on the power of that moment, renewed his faith in God.

"I remember being struck by the sincerity of his words. He seemed like a prophet to me," said Castillo, 50. "I loved

 his humanity and his ability to identify with and help the needy. Previous popes never left the Vatican, but this pope

 went places where there were real problems."

Fellow parishioner Marta Baltazar, 40, recalled how John Paul's visit to Mexico City while she was a teenager

 there renewed her faith.

"He loved Mexico, and I was very touched by that," she said. "It's not common for a person to go and share with

other people."

Others spoke of the pope's passionate conviction to preach Catholic doctrines without compromise. Although his

unwavering stands against birth control, women's ordination and optional priestly celibacy sparked opposition from

 some Catholics, they drew admiration from others.

"I've loved this Holy Father; he led with [biblical] truth in a world that often doesn't want to hear the truth," Anaheim

 resident Rosemary Thomas, 55, said at a noon Mass at Holy Family Cathedral in Orange.

News of the pope's grave condition changed the plans of many people in the Southland.

One Illinois family interrupted its Los Angeles vacation and showed up, in sandals and shorts, for Mass at St. Monica.

Ted and Marilyn Steinbrecher, along with their 17-year-old son, Andy, said the pontiff had deepened their spiritual

life with his devotion to Mary, his commitment to evangelize among youths and his fearless stands against communism and war.

In 2001, the mother and son traveled to Toronto for one of the pope's World Youth Days and said they were struck

by his refusal to retreat from outdoor preaching despite rainstorms.

"He was frail even then, but he was going to get through that event for the kids no matter what," Marilyn Steinbrecher

recalled. "His determination was amazing."

Jim Jochimsen and daughter Victoria, 14, were headed to Universal Studios when radio reports about the pope's

condition led them to turn around and go to the cathedral downtown. "It was the thing to do," he said.

Alicia Perez took a bus and two Metro lines from Compton to attend noon Mass at Our Lady Queen of Angels

Church — La Placita — near Olvera Street. The monthly Mass to pray for the sick took on special meaning.

"I am very sad, because I went through this when my dad died," Perez said. "It's hard to see them agonize."

But, with candles, prayers and love, thousands of Catholics across the Southland did what they could to help their

Holy Father to a peaceful passing.

Ventura resident Marcela Gonzalez, 26, bought a candle and walked several blocks to Mission San Buenaventura

 with her two children, her first visit to a church in years. "I just felt a need to come here and say a prayer for him," she

 said. "I prayed that he wouldn't suffer."

 

U.S. Leaders Remember Pope

American leaders on Saturday said Pope John Paul II (search) inspired them in public life, and recalled

his talent for touching those of all backgrounds and faiths.

"The Catholic Church has lost its shepherd. The world has lost a champion of human freedom, and a good and faithful

servant of God has been called home," President Bush (search) said in a televised statement after the pope's death

was announced.

The president, a devout born-again Christian, appeared with first lady Laura Bush at his side. They later attended a special

Mass at St. Matthew's Cathedral in Washington, D.C.

President Bush ordered flags at all federal and military buildings lowered to half-staff until the pope's burial. He was

expected to attend the funeral in Rome.

Also offering their thoughts were former President Bill Clinton  and Sen. Hillary Rodham Clinton

The former first lady said the pontiff's "unmatched intellect, his infinite heart, and his boundless faith carried forth his

message of love and hope through even the bleakest of circumstances and the darkest of days."

President Clinton said: "In speaking powerfully and eloquently for mercy and reconciliation to people divided by

old hatreds and persecuted by abuse of power, the Holy Father was a beacon of light not just for Catholics, but for all people."

Clinton met with John Paul on five occasions, memorably during the most trying time of his presidency, the Monica

 Lewinsky scandal. A White House spokesman said the two did not discuss the affair, though the pope did criticize Clinton's

order to raid Iraqi weapons facilities.

But upon welcoming the pontiff to St. Louis on that January 1999 visit, Clinton told the pope he hoped he found "an America

 working harder to be what you have asked us to be."

The pontiff often criticized Washington for the death penalty, abortion and exercise of military force. Recent presidents have

 sought out the pope's approval, not just to avoid alienating 23 percent of their constituents, but out of seemingly genuine

admiration for a man so widely revered and untouched by corruption.

President Bush has been especially vocal about his admiration for the Holy Father. The two were at odds over the U.S.-led

 war in Iraq, but the pope unforgettably offered much-needed comfort to grieving Americans after the Sept. 11 attacks.

"To all the children of this great nation, I direct my heartbroken and shared thoughts," John Paul said at a service near

Rome that honored Americans in 2001.

Later, he urged compassion as it became clear Muslim extremists were responsible for the attacks.

"We must not let what has happened lead to a deepening of divisions," he said on a Sept. 23, 2001, visit to Kazakhstan.

 "Religion must never be used as a reason for conflict."

The first American president to greet the pope was a fellow noted humanitarian, former President Jimmy Carter. "His was

 a constant voice for justice, nonviolence, and reconciliation for both individuals and nations," Carter said on Saturday.

"His advocacy for the poor and oppressed will prevail as a source of hope and inspiration for others to follow."

Most political observers agree the American leader the pope was most fond of was the late Ronald Reagan, who was

president when Washington established diplomatic relations with The Holy See.

The two were credited with helping topple communism in Eastern Europe, and in recent years historians have

speculated theirs was a much closer political collaboration than previously thought.

But Reagan and the pope also shared many personal connections, not the least of which was having both been shot in

 1981 by would-be assassins.

"They both loved the outdoors, loved sports. They both adored young people. They both had great senses of humor,

" first lady Nancy Reagan said in a televised interview on Saturday.

Other notable Americans paid tribute to the pope after his death:

"The pope's strength, determination and leadership will be sorely missed in this troubled world. On a very personal basis,

 I feel so fortunate to have known this man. He enriched my life and the lives of so many of the faithful." —

Former President George H.W. Bush

"The pontiff was a world statesman whose leadership played a key role in the fall of communism and the democratic

transformation that swept Europe in its wake. ... The wisdom and universality of his teaching will continue to guide

all of us who, like Pope John Paul II, believe in freedom and faith." — Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice

"In many ways John Paul II was a study in opposites. Having lived through dehumanizing communism at home,

 he bravely stood up for the rights of individuals. As the most powerful man in the world's largest church, he bent

 humbly each year to wash the feet of 12 priests. Reflecting daily on the divine, he had an astonishing humanity that led

 him to forgive even his would-be assassin. And as the first Polish pope in history, he was both a patriot who loved his

homeland and a citizen of the world." — Sen. John McCain, R-Ariz.

"I join my fellow Catholics and people everywhere in grieving the passing of the Holy Father. He was a devout and beloved

 spiritual leader for the Church who inspired people of all faiths and brought us closer to the great goal of peace on earth.

 Even in his last days when he could not speak, he still was a strong moral voice heeded across the globe."

Sen. Edward Kennedy, D-Mass. "I had the high honor of meeting Pope John Paul II in January 2001 when I led

a Congressional Delegation to the Vatican to present him with the Congressional Gold Medal. ... We were told the

Pope would only be available for fifteen minutes. We limited our remarks and listened to his from a prepared text.

Then he went off text and talked for quite a while in a very heartfelt way. As he was leaving — after nearly an hour —

 he turned back around and said, 'God bless America.' I was truly moved." — House Speaker Dennis Hastert

"I am not of the Catholic faith, but I have watched Pope John Paul II these past 26 years travel the globe. He not

only spread the Good News of the Lord, but the Pope also served as a voice for freedom and a champion of the poor."

Sen. Robert Byrd, D-W.Va.

"We will never forget the example he set by forgiving the man who tried to take his life, and by praying at the

Western Wall to ask Jews for their forgiveness. He traveled to places forgotten by all but God to pray for the sick

and the poor, and millions turned out to hear his voice, even when strained. In death, as in life, his incredible spirit

provides every Catholic with strength and his memory provides us with wisdom." — Sen. John Kerry, D-Mass.

"Karol Wojtyla lived and died a warrior-saint, and we remember with joy and gratitude his service to mankind. At the

news of his death, we mourn, we pray, and we bow our heads in thanks that such men ever live. He was more than a

good and holy man: he was a lion. May God receive His humble servant." — Rep. Tom DeLay, R-Texas

Tide of Faithful Pay Last Respects to Pope


VATICAN CITY  - A swelling tide of faithful flowed past pope john paul’s body on Tuesday in an outpouring of affection to repay the Polish Pontiff who reached out to millions during his many travels.

Hundreds of thousands lined up for hours to pay homage to the third-longest reigning pope, whose crimson-robed body lay in state inside the vaulted St. Peter's Basilica where he had presided for 26 years before his death on Saturday.

"There is a river of people," Bishop Angelo Comastri said of the crushing crowd waiting hours to pay tribute and carrying flags, crosses, umbrellas and pictures of John Paul.

The torrent of devotion came three days ahead of funeral rites that will draw together the world's powerful, briefly united in mourning for the world's best known religious leader.

Up to 2 million people are expected for the funeral on Friday as well as almost 200 world leaders in an unprecedented salute for a pontiff who helped bring down the Iron Curtain and stamped a uncompromising orthodoxy on his own faith.

The crowds saturated the area around St. Peter's Square, stretching down the entire broad boulevard leading to the River Tiber, then spilling into the adjacent Borgo neighborhood.

"He spent so much of his time going out to the whole world. We wanted to be part of the whole world coming to him," said Sister Frances Orchard, an English nun living in Rome.

"SO MUCH AFFECTION"

There was no official estimate of the numbers. But Italian state TV said that only hours after John Paul's body was put on view, almost half a million people had already turned up.

Later this month, cardinals will gather to elect his successor, with white smoke from the Sistine Chapel marking the decision. All but two of the 117 who are under age 80 and thus eligible to vote were hand-picked by John Paul.

The Pope left his Apostolic Palace for the last time on Monday, his body borne on a red velvet litter through the Vatican's frescoed hallways into St. Peter's Square and the basilica.

Pilgrims waited for more than five hours for the chance to say farewell to the Pope who traveled more than any other in two millennia to bring his message to the masses.

"He showed us so much affection during his long papacy. The least we could do is to show his affection back," said 16-year-old Francesca Illiano of Naples, who kept an all-night vigil to the sound of prayers over a loudspeaker.

Swiss guards in ceremonial uniform stood to attention around the raised platform where the Pope lay, a silver crucifix tucked under one arm, a rosary in his hands.

HINTS ON NEXT POPE

Cardinals decreed on Monday that the body should remain on view for three days and nights until the funeral attended by President Bush and scores of other dignitaries.

John Paul will be buried under the spot once occupied by the tomb of Pope John XXIII in the crypt beneath St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican spokesman Joaquin Navarro-Valls said.

Red-hatted cardinals continued to arrive in Rome for the funeral and the secretive conclave, which must start between 15 and 20 days after the Pope's death. The Vatican said on Tuesday that no date had yet been set for the conclave to begin.

On Monday, 65 of the cardinals finalized the funeral details and swore an oath of secrecy over the conclave. But before vanishing into the Vatican, some openly discussed the vote.

Some hinted they would welcome a pontiff from the developing world. Others said the next leader of the world's 1.1 billion Catholics should be a doctrinal conservative like John Paul.

South African Cardinal Wilfred Napier said: "It would be great, of course, if it were somebody from the vibrant south."

"It's possible for an African pope to be chosen," Ghanaian Cardinal Peter Turkson said before leaving Accra for Rome.

But Cardinal Bernard Agre of Ivory Coast said: "Psychologically and spiritually the West isn't ready to welcome a black pope."

Polish Cardinal Zenon Grocholewski appeared to pour cold water on the chances of one top cardinal, 77-year-old Josef Ratzinger of Germany, saying: "The problem is his advanced age."

"INDEFATIGABLE WARRIOR"

Three days after John Paul died at 84, tributes continued to pour in for a man who defied dictators, fought for the dispossessed and denounced dissent within his own Church.

"Rest in peace indefatigable warrior for friendship between peoples, enemy of war and friend of the poor," Cuban President Fidel Castro wrote in a book of condolences in Havana.

Cuban officials said Castro would not attend the funeral.

But many others will come, including Bush and two Middle Eastern leaders often at odds with Washington -- Iranian President Mohammad Khatami and Syrian President Bashar al-Assad.

Critics of John Paul's strict policies on birth control, women priests, homosexuality and abortion were unmoved.

"This papacy was a profound disappointment for those who believe that Christ's message of liberation, human freedom and more democracy should apply not just to the world, but to the church itself," said Frances Kissling, president of Washington-based Catholics for a Free Choice.

(Additional reporting by Estelle Shirbon, Jane Barrett and Antonella Cinelli in Vatican City)